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Gear List - GEARBOX

Most  LONG


Brake Duct Size – Brake Duct Size



Engine RPM LIMIT – Engine Ver Limit



Engine Brake Traction – Engine Brake Mapping



Engine Brake Mapping  will affect how much the engine helps in the car's deceleration –
lower numbers result in more engine braking, which also uses less fuel.
The downside is that the engine only slows down the drive wheels, which can cause a braking imbalance between high and low speeds.

Radiator Size - Radiator Size



Steering Lock - Steering Lock



Differential Lock - Differential Lock

Increase Power-Deceleration

Increase Power

Increase Deceleration 

Decrease Power-Deceleration

Decrease Power

Decrease Traction

Increase Pump (4WD)

Preload  affects the reaction time between power and deceleration of your differential.
If you use a preload of
  "1"  and putting your foot on the accelerator you will have a quick axis reaction, however, when you decelerate you will have a reverse reaction.
With a higher Preload you will have a more balanced power-slowdown reaction.
However, I always think it's good to test a higher preload for circuits with big corners in
  "S"  and straight lines like Spa-Francorchamps, and lower values for locked circuits like Monaco.
people use the terms
  "get out  from the front" and "out of the rear" when  trying to describe the differential effect  at the  car.
In fact, just the "out of the back"
  that you will be regulating.
The thing is, when the car leaves
  too much rear consequently you will end up losing control  coming out ahead, that's why the term is used.
Racer Alex' Advanced F1 Setup Guide

Airfoils –  wings

Increase Front

Rear Enlarge

Increase front and rear

Decrease Front

Decrease Rear

Decrease front and rear

Stabilizer Bars - Anti-Roll Bars

+ harden

+ harden  the back

+ Harden the front and rear

– Soften Front

– Soften Back

Decrease/Soften - Front and Rear

Weight Distribution - Weight Distribution

more forward

More to the Back

Brake Balance – Brake Bias

More forward

More to the rear

50 - 50; Central

Tilt - Camber - Camber

Further ahead

more back

Less Front

Less Rear

Diffuser - Caster


To decrease

Convergence - Toe In


More in the Back(+)

Less in front(-)

Less in the Rear (-)

Car Height - Ride Height

further ahead

More on  rear

More on  Front and back

To decrease  Front

To decrease  back

To decrease  front and rear

Spacers and or Stops – Packers and/or Bump Rubber

Further ahead

more back

More on  Front and Rear

Less Front

Less Rear

Less Front  and rear

  SPRINGS - Spring Rate

+ Harden in front

+  Harden back

+  harden in front and back

– Soften  front and back

– Soften in Front

– Soften Back

Reaction or Strike - Bump Damping

+ Harden in front

+ Harden in the Rear

+ harden  front and back

– Soften  ahead

– Soften  in the rear

-Soften  in front and back

Rebound or Return - Rebound Damping

+ Harden in front

+ Harden Back

+ Harden in Front and Back

– Soften in Front

– Soften  at  rear

– Soften  in front and back

rebound  slow  will affect the weight ratio transferred through  of the chassis bearing in relation to the  springs;
fast rebound
  affects the reaction of the car's suspension to the asphalt transmitted  through   of tires and wheels.

Using controlled skid from the rear and front to gain speed.

braking  stronger balanced

slowing down

Speeding up


Steering wheel and pedals - Simulator Controls (Steering wheel, pedals, etc.)

increase  the radius of the axes

Each  Piloto will adjust his steering wheel and pedals according to his personal taste,  however there are basic tips to be followed to have fun and achieve  walking fast without the use of aids (aids).

The greater the turning radius of your steering wheel,  better control and stability you will have when controlling  the car over zebras and undulating surfaces, however, causes a  delayed reaction of the weight/gravity ratio in the car.

The more sensitive or the smaller the range of action  of your steering wheel, the faster you will be able to change direction and  enter curves, generating a faster reaction from the car and can  leave the same even a little venture.

Glossary –  Terms used in the world of virtual racing.

Arcade, arcade, or arcade  = (as it is traditionally known in Brazil) is a professional electronic game device installed in entertainment establishments. It is also considered Arcade, computer games that are just for fun, without commitment to portray in detail the physics and environment.  In the case of racing games, for example,  need  for  speed

, Driver and Grid  they are  Arcades.

Simulator  =  Software that simulates something or action in the real world,  in the case of racing games, for example,  Rfactor, Game Stock Car, Project Cars and Iracing  they are  Simulators.

Graphic engine or rendering engine, or 3D engine  = from English graphics engine, or rendering engine, is a software specialized in rendering of 2D and/or 3D scenes.

Physics  = Software responsible for  Real world physics within the game.

Mods  =  Modifications to software that adds cars and or  tracks in championships.

Carset =  Graphic design of a particular vehicle.

Templates  =  Graphic template for you to paint  your own vehicle.

Dictionary  of motorsport

Aerodynamics:  Science that in racing cars has two basic concerns: creating grip that pushes the car down while minimizing lateral forces that push the car out of the ideal line in curves, while minimizing drag and turbulence in straights, that slow down the car. See F1 – Aerodynamics becoming more and more important.

Adherence:  Intensity of contact between moving tires and track surface.

Airfoil:  Part that has the function of pressing the rear of the car against the ground. In single-seaters there are front and rear airfoils. In touring cars and prototypes there is no front airfoil, but a spoiler (see below).

Airbox:  Aperture in the body, above the pilot's head, designed to draw ambient air into the cylinders.

Apex:  It is the point of a curve that the driver will aim to make the car pass. The apex is on the fastest line of the curve. Some turns have more than one apex.

Dirty air:  This is when the car immediately in front produces turbulence, which can drastically reduce the effectiveness of the front wing of the car behind. Under ideal conditions the front wing can produce 25% of the total downforce of a single-seater.

Aquaplanar: Occurs when a layer of water builds up between a car's tires and the track surface. The car loses contact with the track and becomes uncontrollable (very common in passenger cars too).

Balaklava:  A fireproof protective mask that pilots wear under their helmets to prevent burns to the face and neck.

little flag:  Inspector in charge of activating the communication flags during training and races

Bargeboard:  Body piece mounted vertically between the front wheels and the top of the sidepods to facilitate airflow around the sides of the car.

Cookie:  Tire type with grooves suitable for wet tracks

Bubble:  (Blistering) Occurs as a result of overheating a tire, or part of one of the tires. Blistering can be caused by selection of an unsuitable tire compound (for example, one that is too soft for circuit conditions), too high tire pressure, or a bad car setting.

gravel box:  Protection area on the outside of the curves, where gravel is placed in order to reduce the speed of cars in case of skidding or accident.

Camber:  It is the angle of the wheel when viewed from the front or the rear. Positive camber is when the top of the wheels are farther away from the car than the bottom. Negative camber is the opposite and is much more often used on race cars, although it may not be the same on both the front and rear wheels. Camber is generally the same on both sides in cars that compete on mixed or street tracks. In cars that compete in ovals, like Indy, the camber can vary from side to side and this is often beneficial. Positive camber is rarely used, except in some cases of ovals in Indy, where one side of the car may have positive camber while the other is negative.

Fairing:  Bodywork that aims to provide aerodynamic efficiency to the car.

ECU:  The car's electronic brain, which controls the injection of gasoline into the engine and ignition.

Chassis:  Basic structure of the car that surrounds the driver and supports the car's components.

chicane:  A kind of “tooth” made in the path in the middle of a straight line, with the objective of reducing the speed of the cars.

Displacement: Volume of all engine cylinders.

Thermal blanket:  Device that wraps the tires and keeps them warm before a start or pit-stop

Cockpit:  Cockpit involving the pilot. Designed and produced to withstand impacts of several tons, depending on the category.

Traction control:  Electronic device that prevents the wheels from slipping even if the driver accelerates everything at once.

Deflector:  Aerodynamic appendix of some single-seaters, located between the axles.

Ground Effect:  Type of downforce that is generated by the floor of a racing car. Conceived by Colin Chapman in the 70s, it is the most effective type of downforce there is. The car's floor (along with the side skirts) is constructed so that it looks like an inverted airplane wing. This increases the speed of airflow under the car and generates a huge suction effect. In F1 it is prohibited and the car floor must be flat. The new diffusers have a similar function, but much less effective.

Race Director:  Responsible for decisions made throughout the race.

Diffuser:  Aerodynamic function part located at the bottom in the rear that facilitates the passage of air through the car, in addition to providing more stability in the rear.

Doctor car: Vehicle that takes the medical team to interventions at accident sites.

Downforce:  Aerodynamic grip provided by airfoils (front and/or rear) and other aerodynamic appendages.

Crumbs:  Term used by drivers and technicians to designate a mixture of small pieces of rubber [from the tires], gravel and dirt on the track. This mixture forms a crumb that is usually right next to the ideal track of the track, where riders avoid going because it is quite slippery.

FIA:  International Automobile Federation, is the highest body in world motorsport.

Fly-by-wire:  Cable-free throttle system.

flying lap:  Flying lap in which the pilot, in training, reaches ideal conditions to try to get pole position.

FOM:  Formula One Managment, chaired by Bernie Ecclestone, takes care of the commercial part of F1.

G force:  (G-force) It is the physical force equivalent to a unit of gravity that is multiplied during rapid changes in direction or speed. They mainly happen when cornering, accelerating and braking.

PHOTO:  Formula One Team Association, represents F1 teams.

Grip:  A word often used by pilots, which means grip.

GP:  Big prize.

Guard rail:  Metal protection barrier used mainly in street circuits.

HPs: Horse power, horse power. Measures the power of an engine.

KERS:  Kinetic Energy Recovery System is a device used to convert part of the energy wasted in braking into energy that can be stored and used to increase the power of cars.

Ballast:  Weights are fixed around the car in order to maximize its balance and bring it to the minimum weight limit.

long run:  When a driver completes many laps on the track without stopping in the pit.

Noodle:  (Graining) When a car skids, it can loosen small pieces of rubber from the tires, which look like thin strips of noodles. These strips of noodles can get stuck to the tires between the tire itself and the track surface. For the driver, the effect is like driving down a track littered with pebbles. Careful riding can clean these tire strips in a few laps, but it obviously has an effect on the rider's pace. Driving style, track conditions, car set-up, fuel load and tire inflation can all cause noodles to form. In essence, the more the tire moves over the road surface (ie, skids), the more likely the noodle will form.

Single-seat:  Car made specifically for competition, with space for the driver only, without head covering and with the wheels outside the body of the car. These are the models used in the categories called “formula”.

Monocoque:  A pioneering design created by Lotus in the 60s, but now used by everyone, the monocoque wraps a large part of the chassis or the whole of it, in a single piece that is strong, rigid and as light as possible. It's where the driver sits and where the rest of the car is turned on, think of it as the main body of the car.

Paddock:  Box area, TV cabins and cabins of a race track.

Closed park:  Parc Fermé The place where cars are parked right after a practice or race so that they can be inspected by inspectors, without any possibility of tampering by the teams.

Intermediate tires:  They are similar to wet tires, but with less grooves (or grooves) and these are less deep than wet tires. Indicated for light rain when the track is not flooded.

pit lane:  Corridor where the teams' boxes are located.

Pit stop:  Pit stop during the race to change tires and/or refuel

Pit wall:  A place close to the track, often in front of its own box, where the team owner, bosses and engineers pass the race, usually under an awning to keep the sun and rain away from their monitors.

Pole position:  Best placement for the start; place of the pilot who sets the best time in practice.

Podium:  Place where riders receive trophies and listen to the anthems of the rider and the winning team.

Punta-tacco:  Italian term for toe and heel. Resource used during braking to enter a curve. The pilot brakes, steps on the clutch, accelerates and downshifts in this sequence, practically at the same time. Serves to increase engine speed during downshifts. The toe of the right foot brakes, the heel (or the right side of the foot) gives a little acceleration with the clutch engaged, while the driver downshifts.

Burn the start:  Any forward movement the car makes before the green light.

RPMs:  Revolutions per minute, that is, how many times an engine is capable of turning during one minute. A street super sports car (standard) can turn around 7,000 rpms, while a MotoGP motorcycle or an F1 car can turn around 18,000 to 19,000 rpms

Shakdown:  A quick practice, when a team puts a new car, or new parts of a car, on the track for the first time and tests its basic operating functions before doing a full test for time.

Sidepods:  Areas that are on both sides of the car (next to the driver) that usually accommodate the car's radiators and electronics in single-seaters.

Slick:  Completely smooth tire used on dry tracks.

Survivor:  Plastic film placed over helmet visor. They are layered and riders change them several times in a race by simply pulling them off the helmet.

Oversteer:  Oversteer – tendency of the car to overturn on entry (during braking) or during cornering.

Substeer:  Understeer – opposite of overdrive, the car tends to oversteer in the same situations.

spoiler:  Name given to a part on the low front of the car, whose function is to increase grip on the front of the car.

Stop & go:  Punishment that forces the driver to remain stationary for ten seconds at the exit of the pits and then return to the race.

Super license:  It is the “driver's license” of the F1 driver, verified annually. Punishments can make the driver lose his super license and can no longer compete in Formula 1.

Active suspension:  Electronic suspension system that keeps the car at a constant height from the track, reducing the impact of irregularities on the track.

Safety car:  Also called godmother car, it is the assistance car that leads the line of drivers on the warm-up lap and enters the track when there is a serious accident and the entire track is under a yellow flag.

Stint:  Sequence of non-stop laps in the pit

T-car:  Backup car.

Telemetry:  Measurement of car behavior using wave data transmission

typhus:  Fans, in Italian. In F1, this is how Ferrari fans are known

Torque:  Literally the spin or power of an engine, torque is generally used as a measure of an engine's flexibility. An engine can have a lot of power, but if it has little torque, that power can only be used within a small range of rpms, making it of limited use for the pilot. An engine with more torque – even if it has less horsepower – can prove faster on many tracks, as the power is available within a much wider range of rpms and is therefore more affordable. Good torque is particularly vital on low and medium speed circuits, where acceleration out of corners is essential for good timing.

Traction:  How much a car is able to transfer power to the track before it loses grip (skid).

Wind tunnel:  Artificially designed for aerodynamic optimization. The air is accelerated through special fans inside an enclosed area to simulate the air flow the car will encounter while walking down the track. Most F1 teams use 66% scale models to test in their tunnels, although some have tunnels big enough to test their cars at 100% scale.

Vacuum:  Area located immediately behind the car where air pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure. The driver in the back tries to place his car in this area to take advantage of the lesser air resistance, gain speed and get out from behind the opponent to overtake.

Warming lap:  Lap before the start, to warm up the tires.

Vortex:  Area where the air is compressing and rotating. A “turbulent” air is a combination of small vortices. The most obvious examples are the vortices that can be seen exiting the sides of a rear wing in wet conditions. These vortices are always there, but they are only visible under certain conditions.

Warm up:  Half hour morning training that takes place on the day of the GP.

Zebra:  It is found on both sides of the track, usually with two diagonal lanes painted in different colors, where the car, after exiting the tangency of the curve, can lean on for more traction. On rainy days the zebra tends to be very slippery and riders avoid going over them.

Dictionary by  Adauto

Source: Autoracing (

Survey: Eduardo Andrade

It is made  in the balance of the car










Decreases  Rear exit during deceleration

Increases  Rear exit during deceleration









Increases  the exit from Front on curves

Increases  the Front output when accelerating.

Increases  Front output when decelerating

Increases  the exit of Rear in the curves

Increases  Rear exit when accelerating.

Increases  Front output when decelerating




Leaves  over rear  entering the curves

Leaves  more forward entering the curves


Leaves  more forward during every turn

Leaves  more of back  during every curve



Car  come out ahead

Car  come out more from the rear


Car  comes out more from the rear; enters the curves better

Car  comes out more forward; Get out of curves better



Leaves  over rear

Leaves  more forward


Comes out more forward during braking

Leaves  over rear while braking

A little rear or front skirt depending on the balance.







Decreases  front exit

Increases  front exit







Leaves  + from the front in fast corners

Leaves  + rear in fast corners


Leaves  + rear in fast corners

Leaves  + from the front fast corners



Leaves  more forward

Leaves  over rear


Leaves  over rear

Leaves  more forward



Leaves  more forward

Leaves  over rear


Leaves  over rear

Leaves  over Front



Leaves  over Front on wavy curves

Leaves  Rear over wavy curves


Leaves  Rear over wavy curves

Leaves  over Front on wavy curves



Get out more ahead at the entrance and exit of a turn

Leaves  over rear in turn entry and exit


Leaves  over rear in turn entry and exit

Leaves  more forward in the entrance and exit of the turn




Decreases  the front exit

Increase  the rear exit

To control  rear exit out of corners




other effects

Increases  the Final Velocity; Reduces Acceleration.

Decreases  the Final Velocity; Increases Acceleration.


Increases  brake cooling; Decreases straight speed.

Decreases  brake cooling; increases speed in a straight line.


Increases  the power and also the ENGINE temperature; Decreases reliability.

Decreases  the power and also the ENGINE temperature; Increases reliability.


Increases  fuel consumption.

Decreases  fuel consumption.



Increases  engine cooling; Decreases straight speed.

Decreases  engine cooling; Increases straight speed.


Decreases  the Turning Radius of the Steering Wheel; Coarser control  is fast  the same.

Increases  the Turning Radius of the Steering Wheel; Finer and slower control of it.



Most  stable on straight acceleration

Most  Stable on Strong Braking!


Any less  stable on straight acceleration

Any less  Stable on Strong Braking!

Wheels  fronts pull more than the rears.



Increases  the Grip at the front when cornering; Wears more tire; slows down  straight.

Increases  the Rear Grip when cornering; Wears more tire; slows down  straight.

Increases  Grip in Curves; Decreases straight speed.

Decreases  the Grip at the front when cornering; wears less tire; speed up  straight.

Decreases  the rear grip when cornering; wears less tire; speed up  straight.

Decreases  Grip in Curves; More straight speed


Decreases  o Grip on undulating tracks; wears more tire; more risky car

Decreases  o Grip coming out of curves and on undulating tracks; wears more tire;  more risky car

Decreases  o Grip coming out of curves and on undulating tracks; wears more tires;  more risky car

Increases  o Grip on undulating tracks; wears less tire; car more  predictable

Increases  o Grip on undulating tracks; wears less tire; car more  predictable

Car  it may be scraping on the asphalt;
Increases Grip on undulating tracks;
wears less tire;
car more





Wheels  fronts can brake increasing the brake distribution; any less  chance of losing the rear.

Wheels  rears can lock up increasing brake distribution; easier  to lose the rear

Good  functioning depends on perfect weight adjustment; Wing; and differential.


Most  curves grip

Any less  curves grip

Any less  curves grip

Most  curves grip


Decreases  the radii of the curves; comes out more from the rear in high corners

Most  high corner stability


Best curve entry; wears more tire;  less straight speed

Better  stability; wears more tire; less straight speed

harms  the curve input; wears more tire; less straight speed.

harms  stability; wears more tire; less straight speed.


Background  will scrape less on the asphalt

Background  will scrape less on the asphalt


Background  will scrape more on the asphalt

Background  will scrape more on the asphalt



Allows  use a lower car without scraping  very on the ground

Allows  use a lower car without scraping  very on the ground

Allows  use a lower car without scraping  very on the ground

Car  can scrape the ground easier

Car  can scrape the ground easier

Car  can scrape the ground easier


Decreases  o Grip on curves and undulating tracks; wears more tire; car more  risk

Decreases  o Grip on curves and undulating tracks; wears more tire; car more  risk

Decreases  o Grip on curves and undulating tracks; wears more tire; car more  risk

Increases  o Grip on curves and undulating tracks; wears less tire; car more  predictable

Increases  o Grip on curves and undulating tracks; wears less tire; car more  predictable

Increases  o Grip on curves and undulating tracks; wears less tire; car more  predictable


Decreases  the grip on undulating tracks; wear more tire

Decreases  the grip on undulating tracks; wear more tire

Decreases  the grip on undulating tracks; Wears more tire;  nervous car / risk

Decreases  o Tire wear.

Improvement  the grip on undulating tracks; wears less tire.

Improvement  the grip on undulating tracks; wears less tire.


Wears more front tire

spend  more rear tire

Faster vehicle response

spend  less front tire

spend  less rear tire

Response  slower vehicle



That  technique and used in a neutral car, that when you brake hard  he comes out a little ahead. Pass a little more brake to  front wheels. When you brake the car's weight goes to wheels  fronts giving more grip when braking. THIS only works in one  Neutral car.

if  if you can steer a car out of the back you can use this  to your advantage. With a rear car you can have a better  turn radius and load a lot of speed during the turn by braking  as little as possible so as not to destabilize the car.

You  you can change your gearbox configuration by making the  curves in lower turning having a better acceleration at the exit

of curve.


Allows  a more refined and cleaner riding

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